The idea behind the depth of processing model of memory

Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology. So, it could be that the results are partly due to more time being spent on the material. Another problem is that participants typically spend a longer time processing the deeper or more difficult tasks. This explanation of memory is useful in everyday life because it highlights the way in which elaboration, which requires deeper processing of information, can aid memory.

The levels of processing theory focuses on the processes involved in memory, and thus ignores the structures.

Some general constraints on learning and memory research. The familiarity modifier has been tested in implicit memory experiments, where subjects report false memories when presented with related stimuli.

Information Processing Theory

Bransford broadened this idea by adding that information will be more easily retrieved if the way it is accessed is similar to the way in which it was stored[4]. Several studies show that, in older individuals, the ability to process semantically in contrast with non-semantically is improved by this disparity.

The executive controls system oversees all working memory activity, including selection of information, method of processing, meaning, and finally deciding whether to transfer it to long term memory or forget it.

Some studies suggest that auditory weakness is only present for explicit memory direct recallrather than implicit memory. According to semantic network theories, this is because such a stimulus will have many connections to other encoded memories, which are activated based on closeness in semantic network structure.

However, there is significant room for the modifiers mentioned earlier to affect levels-of-processing to be activated within each sensory mode. These memories, usually unconscious, last for a very short amount of time, ranging up to three seconds. As a result, they are difficult to measure.

For example, giving words a meaning or linking them with previous knowledge. The self-reference effect describes the greater recall capacity for a particular stimulus if it is related semantically to the subject.

A framework for memory research. For example, elaboration rehearsal leads to recall of information than just maintenance rehearsal. The amount of connections a single piece of information has will affect the ease of retrieval. In one study, both implicit free recall and explicit memory of emotional aspects memorization of word lists were enhanced by threatening meanings in such patients.

Some questions required the participants to process the word in a deep way e. Real Life Applications This explanation of memory is useful in everyday life because it highlights the way in which elaboration, which requires deeper processing of information, can aid memory.

The idea that the way information is encoded affects how well it is remembered. Subjects had more trouble identifying size difference in visual fields than using tactile feedback.

For example, in a lexical analysis task, subjects showed activity in the left inferior prefrontal cortex only when identifying whether the word represented a living or nonliving object, and not when identifying whether or not the word contained an "a".

Within visual studies, pictures have been shown to have a greater recall value than words — the picture superiority effect. Maintenance refers to repetition, while elaboration refers to the organization of information such as chunking or chronology.

Semantic processing of odors e. Summary Levels of processing: Consequently more information will be remembered and recalled and better exam results should be achieved. Elaborative encoding enriches the memory representation of an item by activating many aspects of its meaning and linking it into the pre-existing network of semantic associations.

Memory is just a by-product of the depth of processing of information, and there is no clear distinction between short term and long term memory. Craik and Tulving Aim To investigate how deep and shallow processing affects memory recall.

The general model of information processing theory includes three components: Deep processing involves elaboration rehearsal which involves a more meaningful analysis e. Neural evidence[ edit ] Several brain imaging studies using positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques have shown that higher levels of processing correlate with more brain activity and activity in different parts of the brain than lower levels.

Attributing verbal attributes to odors has similar effects. Levels-of-processing effects on familiarity".

Levels of Processing

Deep Processing - This involves 3. Modifiers[ edit ] Familiaritytransfer-appropriate processingthe self-reference effectand the explicit nature of a stimulus modify the levels-of-processing effect by manipulating mental processing depth factors.

One study found that word completion tasks were unaffected by levels of semantic encodings achieved using three words with various levels of meaning in common. Subjects who perform this task have a different recall value on explicit memory tests than subjects who memorize smells using self-chosen methods.

The levels-of-processing effect is only found for explicit memory tests.The levels-of-processing effect, identified by Fergus I. M. Craik and Robert S. Lockhart indescribes memory recall of stimuli as a function of the depth of mental processing.

Levels-of-processing effect

Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer-lasting, and stronger memory traces than shallow levels of analysis. The general model of information processing theory includes three components: Sensory memory.

In sensory memory, information is gathered via the senses through a process called transduction. Through receptor cell activity, it is altered into a form of information that the brain could process.

By "depth of processing", we mean, the way in which a person thinks about a piece of information, for example, a shallow level of processing of a word would be to skim over a sentence and to understand the sentence without dwelling on the individual word.

The study examined the idea that the organization of information in memory varies depending on the depth of processing during input, as well as on the conditions for retrieval.

Two types of memory organization are distinguished: Conceptual organization implies a hierarchical structure in which items.

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Chapter 7: Cognition. STUDY. PLAY. memory. human capacity to register, retain, and remember information encoding. the process of putting information into the memory system (part of information processing model) storage.

the retention of encoded information over time (part of the information processing model ability to form .

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The idea behind the depth of processing model of memory
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