Anatomy and physiology of the endocrine

Hormones can only affect target cells that have the appropriate receptors. The endocrine system regulates the development and the functions of the reproductive systems in males and females. They release parathyroid hormone, which plays a role in regulating calcium levels in the blood and bone metabolism.

This reaction may change a factor inside of the cell such as the permeability of the membrane or the activation of another molecule. The inner part, or adrenal medulla, produces hormones called catecholamines for example, adrenaline.

The adrenal glands are each made of 2 distinct layers, each with their own unique functions: Hormone that stimulates milk production in females The posterior lobe produces the following hormones, which are not regulated by the hypothalamus: Water-soluble hormones include the peptide and amino-acid hormones such as insulin, epinephrine, HGH, and oxytocin.

Pancreatitis simply means inflammation of the pancreas. The endocrine system helps regulate the production and functions of immune cells. Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary There are several hormones of the anterior pituitary hormones that affect many body organs.

Glucocorticoids have many diverse functions, including the breakdown of proteins and lipids to produce glucose. The endocrine system controls water equilibrium by regulating the solute concentration of the blood.

The activity of the pineal gland is inhibited by stimulation from the photoreceptors of the retina.

Endocrine Anatomy and Physiology

Estrogen also triggers the increased growth of bones during adolescence that lead to adult height and proportions. Calcitonin functions to reduce the concentration of calcium ions in the blood by aiding the absorption of calcium into the matrix of bones.

The testes are responsible for the synthesis and secretion of androgens, such as testosterone. There are two types of pancreatitis, acute and chronic. Illustration of the endocrine system. Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones A lack of thyroid hormones either because of a defect in the pituitary or the thyroid itself is called hypothyroidism.

The other part of the pancreas, the endocrine pancreas, secretes hormones called insulin and glucagon. Androgens, such as testosterone, are produced at low levels in the adrenal cortex to regulate the growth and activity of cells that are receptive to male hormones.

During puberty, testosterone controls the growth and development of the sex organs and body hair of males, including pubic, chest, and facial hair. Mineralocorticoids, as their name suggests, are a group of hormones that help to regulate the concentration of mineral ions in the body.

Uterine contractions and milk release.

Endocrine System

It is often considered the most important part of the endocrine system because it produces hormones that control many functions of other endocrine glands. Calcitonin Triiodothyronine T3 Thyroxine T4 Calcitonin is released when calcium ion levels in the blood rise above a certain set point.

Endocrine System Anatomy and Physiology

Human chorionic gonadotropin HCG assists progesterone by signaling the ovaries to maintain the production of estrogen and progesterone throughout pregnancy.

ANP prevents aldosterone release, its goal being to reduce blood volume and blood pressure. CCK, secretin, and gastrin all help to regulate the secretion of pancreatic juice, bile, and gastric juice in response to the presence of food in the stomach.

In men who have inherited genes for baldness testosterone triggers the onset of androgenic alopecia, commonly known as male pattern baldness.

The mineralocorticoids, primarily aldosterone, are produced by the outermost adrenal cortex cell layer; mineralocorticoids are important in regulating the mineral or salt content of the blood, particularly the concentrations of sodium and potassium ions and they also help in regulating the water and electrolyte balance in the body.

Antidiuretic hormone ADH prevents water loss in the body by increasing the re-uptake of water in the kidneys and reducing blood flow to sweat glands. The anterior lobe produces the following hormones, which are regulated by the hypothalamus: A common reaction is to cause molecules of cyclic adenosine monophosphate cAMP to be synthesized from adenosine triphosphate ATP present in the cell.

The pineal gland produces the hormone melatonin that helps to regulate the human sleep-wake cycle known as the circadian rhythm.

Growth hormone deficiency in adults results in problems in maintaining proper amounts of body fat and muscle and bone mass.Start studying Anatomy & Physiology: Endocrine System.

Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Endocrine glands: Endocrine organs, called glands, secrete hormones into the bloodstream.

Hormones affect the activity of target sites that are often located far from the site of release. Exocrine organs direct the function of. Chapter 31 Endocrine Anatomy and Physiology Mary E. Lough Maintaining dynamic equilibrium among the various cells, tissues, organs, and systems of the human body is a highly complex and specialized process.

Two systems regulate these critical relationships: the nervous system and the endocrine system. The nervous system communicates by. The pancreas is a long, slender organ, most of which is located posterior to the bottom half of the stomach.

Although it is primarily an exocrine gland, secreting a variety of digestive enzymes, the pancreas has an endocrine function. View Notes - A&P ENDOCRINE SYSTEM SSFpptx from NURSING at College of San Mateo.

Anatomy of the Endocrine System

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY ENDOCRINE SYSTEM AMALIA FICARRA, RN DSD LEARNING OBJECTIVES List and describe the. You’ll learn some general anatomy (a roadmap of your body), learn how the arm bone actually connects to the shoulder bone, and how the different organs work together to keep you alive.

Human anatomy and physiology. Health and medicine. Human anatomy and physiology. Possible mastery points. A list of progress levels towards mastery.

Anatomy and physiology of the endocrine
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